Views:54 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2019-08-08 Origin:Site
At present, there are many treatment methods for tumors, the most important ones are the following: surgical treatment, chemical treatment, radiation therapy, Chinese medicine treatment, and biological therapy. Surgery, radiotherapy and radiotherapy together are called the three major treatments for cancer.
1. Preventive surgery-----treatment of precancerous lesions
2. Radical surgery-----Tumors adapted to I, II, III (early) organs have their radical resection range
3, diagnostic surgery-----excision biopsy (cut biopsy, laparotomy)
4. Enlarged radical surgery----radical scope + adjacent organs and regional lymph nodes (expansion radical mastectomy for breast cancer---- radical + intracranial lymph node dissection; gastric cancer-R1, R2, R3 surgery)
5. Palliative resection - relieve, relieve symptoms (advanced gastric cancer with pyloric obstruction ------ gastrointestinal anastomosis; advanced colorectal cancer with intestinal obstruction – enterostomy, anastomosis; biliary tract tumor with Obstruction----cholangeal anastomosis, drainage; laryngeal cancer-----tracheotomy
6. Other surgery
(1) cytoreductive surgery----reduced tumor burden
(2) Arterial intubation chemotherapy, embolization
(3) Indirect surgical treatment---- ovarian resection of breast cancer
(4) emergency surgery - bleeding, perforation, obstruction
(5), surgical treatment of recurrence and metastases
Interventional therapy is a small channel with a diameter of a few millimeters on the blood vessels and skin without the use of a knife to expose the lesion, or through the original pipeline of the human body, in the imaging equipment (angiography machine, fluoroscopy machine, CT, MR, B ultrasound) The minimally invasive treatment of locally treated lesions is an emerging treatment between surgical and medical treatments, including endovascular and non-vascular interventions. Many interventional treatments have become one of the most important treatments for some diseases (such as liver cirrhosis, liver cancer, lung cancer, lumbar disc herniation, aneurysm, vascular malformation, uterine fibroids, etc.).
Completely kill tumor cells and cure patients. Such as chorionic epithelial cell carcinoma, acute lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular cancer. The basic process of chemotherapeutic drugs to kill tumors: the beginning is to induce remission, so that the tumor cells shrink, and then reinforce and strengthen treatment after remission, to achieve the purpose of radical cure.
Prolong the patient's survival, relieve pain, relieve some of the symptoms of compression and obstruction. For example, advanced breast cancer, gastric cancer, small cell lung cancer, etc. have certain sensitivity to chemotherapy, and some patients can prolong survival and cannot be cured. Chemotherapy-insensitive tumors such as advanced esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and primary liver cancer temporarily relieve symptoms and cannot prolong survival.
By ionizing radiation, the DNA in the nucleus is destroyed, and the cells lose their proliferative power, thereby killing the tumor cells. It is the best effort to kill tumor cells while protecting normal tissues.
1. Direct action: Radiation directly acts on cellular DNA, causing DNA to break, unable to regulate value-added, and cause death.
2. Indirect effect: Radiation and water produce free radicals, free radicals destroy cells and cause death.
3. Fractional exposure:
(1) The damage of normal tissues and tumors is partially repaired. The repair ability of normal tissues is higher than that of tumors, and the normal tissue damage is lower than that of tumor tissues.
(2) Cell cycle redistribution: G2 and M phase cells are sensitive to radiation and are most likely to be killed; G1, S, and G0 are less radiosensitive. The cells in the sensitive phase are first killed, and the cells continue the cell cycle progression, progressing from the S phase to the G2 and M phases.
(3) Reoxygenation, there is no hypoxic cells in normal tissues, tumor vascular incompleteness, different proportion of hypoxic cells, and strong resistance to radioactivity. After the fractional irradiation, the tumor shrinks, the blood supply is improved, and the hypoxic cells are re-oxygenated to become oxygen-rich cells, and the sensitivity is improved.
(4) Re-proliferation. Normal tissue initiates cell proliferation to compensate for the loss of cells, which reduces radiation damage. After the radiation, the remaining tumor cells proliferate and stimulate the proliferation of G0 cells.
Traditional Chinese medicine can not only control tumors, improve symptoms, improve quality of life, and combine surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and immunotherapy to enhance efficacy and reduce adverse reactions.
(1) decreased appetite: Divine Comedy, Fried Valley Bud, Jiaoshan Mountain, Chicken Inner Gold, etc.
(2) nausea: ginger Pinellia, tangerine peel, ginger, clam shell, ginger
(3) constipation: raw rhubarb, mirabilite, scent, betel nut, etc.
(4) Diarrhea: ebony, dried ginger, woody, berberine, etc.
(5) Blood in the stool: stamen, agrimony, silk flower, etc.
(6) abdominal distension: upper abdominal distension with phlegm, magnolia, divine song, etc.; lower abdominal distension with large belly skin
(7) Ascites: psyllium, molting, diarrhea, large belly, etc.
(8) Cough: Scorpio, Plum Blossom, natural shell.
(9) Blood stasis: stamen, agrimon, etc.
(10) Booger: white scented flower, achyranthes
(11) Dysphagia: acute, clematis, jade, etc.
(12) Hematuria: habitat, bamboo leaves, wood pass, raw licorice, big cockroaches, small cockroaches, etc.
(13) Cancerous fever: raw gypsum, cold water stone, clear water bean roll, purple snow Dan, etc.
(14) Cancer pain: Corydalis, frankincense, myrrh and so on.
(15) Leukocyte decline: Qi and blood medicine, kidney medicine, such as antler cream, turtle shell, etc.
(16) Red blood cell decline: Astragalus, Angelica, Rehmannia, spatholobus, scorpion, scorpion, etc.
(17) Decreased platelets: valerian, medlar, etc.
(18) Oral mucosal reaction: dry mouth, raw earthworm, sarcophagus, honeysuckle, aralia, sand ginseng, yam, etc.; oral plaster, etc.
(1) kelp, seaweed, and mountain mushroom treatment of thyroid tumor
(2) Raw rice kernels and bitter gourd for the treatment of flat skin
(3) Mixing fresh goose blood with leek juice to treat upper digestive tract tumors
(4) Apricot, medlar, fig, sputum, etc. for the treatment of respiratory tumors
(5) raw rice kernel, old water chestnut, kiwifruit treatment of gastric cancer
(6) Fresh lettuce treatment of liver cancer
(7) Zanthoxylum bungeanum, ebony, and sage mushroom for the treatment of gynecological tumors
(8) taro, mushroom, lily, mangosteen, surimi, white fungus, bean, carrot, asparagus, etc.
Using the immune mechanism of the human body, the immune function of tumor patients can be enhanced by active or passive methods to achieve the purpose of killing tumor cells.
(1) Interferon (IFN)
It is effective in the treatment of leukemia, multiple myeloma, renal cancer, and lymphoma. Mechanism: inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells; induce natural killer cells, cytotoxic T cells, etc., enhance the activity of killer cells; induce tumor cells to express major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-1 antigens, and increase sensitivity to killer cells.
IL-2 promotes and maintains the proliferation of T cells and induces lymphocytes to produce cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α. IL-2 alone is effective for malignant melanoma and renal cancer with an effective rate of 20%. Large doses have adverse reactions.
(3) Tumor necrosis factor
TNF, directly kill tumor cells; induce apoptosis; mediate other active cells to kill tumor effects; cause tumor microvascular damage, causing tumor ischemic necrosis. The side effects are heavier.
2. Monoclonal antibody
Some specific tumor antigens on the surface of tumors serve as targets for attack by monoclonal antibodies. Blocking the function of antigenic proteins, killing tumor cells by cytotoxicity, especially for free tumor cells in circulating blood.
The use of genetic material to correct abnormalities in the structure or function of normal genes, or to inhibit the replication of genetic material from foreign pathogens, thereby achieving therapeutic goals. Correct or replace the causative gene.
(1) Suicide gene therapy: transfer suicide gene, directly kill cells, induce drug toxicity, and destroy cells by toxicity.
(2) Tumor genetically modified tumor vaccine: introduction of foreign genes, changing the tumorigenicity of cells and enhancing immunogenicity
(3) DCS-based tumor gene therapy: enhancing the antigen presentation ability of DC
(4) Treatment of tumor suppressor genes: Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and/or activation of oncogenes lead to tumorigenesis and restore the function of the body to inhibit tumors.
Targeted therapies act on specific molecules that play a role in the growth, division and metastasis of tumor cells. These molecules are highly expressed in tumor cells and have less effect on normal cells.
Small molecule targeted drugs and monoclonal antibody targeted drugs
2. Therapeutic targets
(1) Growth signal
Promote human body blood supply and oxygen supply and metabolism, improve immunity, food intake, and make wounds heal quickly, including people with poor wound healing ability (such as those with diabetes, natural skin defects), making the weak body fast On the other hand, after cancer surgery, it is necessary to prevent tumor recurrence. Rg3 effectively inhibits tumor recurrence and reduces and kills residual small lesions.
1. Improve the effect of radiotherapy and chemotherapy
The efficacy of chemotherapy drugs or radiotherapy is significantly higher than that of chemoradiotherapy alone. The clinical effective rate for non-small cell lung cancer is 38-40%, liver cancer 35%, breast cancer 50%, and leukemia 82%.
2. Reduce the side effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy
Such as leukopenia, hemoglobin reduction, digestive discomfort, etc., usually maintain normal levels of white blood cells and hemoglobin, helping patients to successfully complete chemotherapy.
3. Effectively inhibit tumor recurrence
At the same time, the active ingredient Rg3 of exerts its own anti-tumor effect, mainly inhibiting the growth and spread of metastases, and narrowing or stabilizing the primary lesion.
4. Significantly improve clinical symptoms
Taking Rg3 can significantly improve the clinical symptoms of cancer patients, such as improving fatigue, sweating, qi deficiency, depression, etc., and can increase appetite and food intake, reduce hair loss caused by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the total effective rate is 87%.
1. Inhibit tumor neovascularization and prevent tumor invasion and metastasis.
2. Ginsenoside Rg3 can significantly inhibit a variety of oncogenes in human genomes or genes that cause tumorigenesis, invasion and metastasis. At least the expression of oncogenes in human genomes is reduced by more than 2 times, and up to 9.7 times.
3. Inducing apoptosis.
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